111年公務人員特種考試外交領事人員及外交行政人員、國際經濟商務人員、民航人員及原住民族考試試題 國際關係與近代外交史(以英文命題及作答)

甲、申論題部分:(75 分)
請以英文作答,不必抄題,作答時請將試題題號及答案依照順序寫在申論試卷上,於本試題
上作答者,不予計分。
請以藍、黑色鋼筆或原子筆在申論試卷上作答。
一、Please describe in detail the meaning of the internal balancing and the
external balancing developed by the Structural Realism theory, and then based
on these classifications, illustrate the internal and external balancing measures
that the Biden administration of the U.S. has taken against the rise of
China. (20 points)
二、Please describe the strategic implications of China’s recent initiatives of
strengthening its relationship with Pacific island countries from the
perspectives of “wedge strategies”, and then comment on the opportunities
and challenges of China’s wedge strategies in the Pacific Region. (20 points)
三、What were the core concepts of George Kennan’s “Containment Policy”?
Please elaborate its influences onto the post war U.S. foreign policy and its
impacts onto the global geopolitics. (18 points)
四、World War I broke out in 1914. China then entered the war in Europe. Did the
Treaty of Versailles undermine China’s national interest? How did China
respond? What were the consequences of this event? (17 points)
乙、測驗題部分:(25 分) 代號:3112
本試題為單一選擇題,請選出一個正確或最適當答案。
共20題,每題1.25分,須用2B鉛筆在試卡上依題號清楚劃記,於本試題或申論試卷上作答者,不予計分。
1 Which of the following countries is NOT one of the Arctic States in the Arctic Council?
 Russia.  The United States.
 Denmark.  The United Kingdom

2 Which of the following statements is NOT correct pertaining to the United Nations Security Council
(UNSC)?
 The UNSC consists of 15 members, including 5 permanent members and 10 non-permanent members
elected for a three-year term.
 The UNSC may investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.
 Japan was elected as one of the non-permanent members in June this year, and will join the UNSC in
January 2023.
 A representative of each of its members must be present at all times at the UN Headquarters so that the
UNSC can meet at any time as the need arises.
3 The term “globalization” contains various dimensions. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement
pertaining to “globalization”?
 Hyper-globalizers tend to believe the European Union will ultimately replace its individual member
states.
 The extent of integration of major contemporary global economies is not higher than that prior to the
First World War.
 Sceptics tend to believe there would be a retreat of nation states.
 Nowadays, the North-South gap in terms of development and wealth is growing, not narrowing.
4 Which of the following statements does NOT correctly explain the “liberal international order”?
 Economic interdependence, international organizations, and democracy are the basis of the liberal
international order.
 Scholars from western Europe and the United States tend to employ this term to describe the world
order after the Second World War.
 Currently, the liberal international order is universal.
 John Mearsheimer argues that a realist order, not liberal international order, is in the interest of the
United States.
5 Which of the following international economic institutions is NOT part of the “Bretton Woods System”?
 International Monetary Fund (IMF).
 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).
 Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT).
 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
6 Which of the following countries is a founding member of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement
for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)?
 United States.  Canada.  Australia.  Indonesia.
7 Which of the following current member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was
NOT a former member of the Warsaw Treaty Organization?
 Poland.  Hungary.  Czech Republic.  Slovenia.
8 Which of the following international legal documents is NOT part of the “International Bill of Rights”?
 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD).
 International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

9 Which of the following countries has never had dispute with China over maritime sovereignty claims in
the South China Sea?
 Vietnam.  Malaysia.  Singapore.  The Philippines.
10 Which of the following statements is NOT correct pertaining to the AUKUS?
 It is a trilateral security agreement between Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and
one of its aims is to facilitate Australia’s acquirement of nuclear-powered submarines.
 The agreement was reached under President Joe Biden of the United States, Prime Minister Boris
Johnson of the United Kingdom, and Prime Minister Anthony Albanese of Australia.
 Beijing has been vocal in protest, calling it an extension of Cold-War mentality.
 New Zealand supports the increased engagement of the United Kingdom and United States in the
region, but declines visits from Australia’s new nuclear submarines.
11 Who took the order of Emperor Guangxu to supervise military affairs in Xinjiang, suppress the local
rebellions, and deter the British from making Xinjiang as its “protectorate”?
 Li Hongzhang.  Yi Shan.  Zeng Jize.  Zuo Zongtang.
12 The regime of international diplomacy after the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was often referred to as
 Concert of Europe.  Integration of Europe.
 European Reform.  European Democracy.
13 The “Prime Minister’s National Affairs Office” of the Qing Dynasty was established after the signature
of .
 Treaty of Peace, Amity, and Commerce between the United States of America and China.
 Treaty of Beijing among China, the United Kingdom, and France in 1860.
 Treaty of Humen between China and the United Kingdom.
 Treaty of Whampoa between China and France.
14 Which of the following items mentioned in the “General Regulations of the Five Ports Trading” and the
“Treaty of Humen,” the supplementary editions to the Treaty of Nanjing, did NOT violate the sovereignty
of China?
 Negotiated tariff rates.  Consular Jurisdiction.
 Moor right of warships.  Amnesty of criminals.
15 Which of the following statements is correct regarding the diplomatic activities of the Yuan Shikai
administration after the establishment of the Republic of China?
 When serving as the head of the diplomatic corps in Beijing, US Minister Jordan became friendly with
Yuan Shikai, thus exerting considerable influence.
 Yuan Shikai’s reconstruction loan was supported by a group of banks from five countries, including
the United States.
 After the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Yuan Shikai led China to declare war on Germany.
 In 1915, China and Japan negotiated the Twenty-one Demands, which included the management rights
of Hanyeping Iron and Steel Plant.

16 Regarding the activities of foreign powers in Shandong from the end of the Qing Dynasty to the beginning
of the Republic of China, which of the following statements is NOT correct?
 In 1897, Germany sent troops to occupy Jiaozhou Bay and opened up the following partition crisis.
 After the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Japan declared war on Germany under the pretext
of Anglo-Japanese alliance and thus gained control over Qingdao, Shandong.
 In the 1915 Sino-Japanese Twenty-One Negotiations, Yuan Shikai recognized Japan’s inheritance of
all German rights in Shandong. In the exchange treaty, he expressed his willingness to accept Japan’s
proposal, which became the basis for Japan’s acquisition of Shandong at the Paris Peace Conference.
 On May 4, 1919, after the resolution of the Paris Peace Conference on the Shandong issue was sent
back to China, students in Beijing protested, demanding the authorities not sign the treaty and punish
relevant officials. This became the fuse of the May Fourth Movement.
17 Sino-Japanese relations continued to deteriorate after the Mukden Incident (or Manchurian Incident) in 1931. which of the following regarding this incident is NOT correct?
 In 1932, Japanese radical soldiers broke into the prime minister’s residence in Tokyo. They shot and
killed the Prime Minister Tanaka Giichi, who was inclined to adopt a peaceful solution to the SinoJapanese issue. This is known as the May 15 Incident.
 In 1933, the Japanese army attacked Rehe, and fought the Great Wall Battle with the Chinese army.
The battle ended with Sino-Japanese Tanggu Agreement.
 The person who created the North China Autonomous Movement and proposed the Hirota Three Principles
in 1935 was Japanese Foreign Minister Hirota Koki.
 In 1937, the Japanese army attacked the Luguo Bridge located near Beiping, which is known as July 7
Incident. The Sino-Japanese conflict immediately expanded.
18 Who created the term “soft power”?
 Joseph Nye.
 John Mearsheimer.
 Henry Kissinger.
 Alexander Wendt.
19 Which of the following was NOT the cause of World War I?
 Secret alliances among great powers went out of control.
 The British-Franco-Russian hostile relations were generally ameliorated.
 The Axis and Allied countries acutely competed for spheres of influence.
 The United Kingdom’s sea power was challenged by Germany’s “Great Navy” strategy.
20 Which of the following statements is NOT true about the Outer Mongolia issue and the Tibet issue in the
late Qing and early Republic of China?
 British troops stationed in India invaded Tibet twice.
 In 1914, China, Britain, and Tibet signed the Simla Accord in India, which was recognized by the Yuan
Shikai administration.
 After the outbreak of the 1911 Revolution, Outer Mongolia launched its first independence movement.
 After the outbreak of the October Revolution in Russia, the civil war between the Red Army and the
White Army spread to Outer Mongolia.