110年公務人員特種考試外交領事人員及 外交行政人員、民航人員及原住民族考試試題 國際關係與近代外交史

甲、申論題部分:(75 分)
請以英文作答,不必抄題,作答時請將試題題號及答案依照順序寫在申論試卷上,於本試題上作答者,
不予計分。
請以藍、黑色鋼筆或原子筆在申論試卷上作答。
一、The Biden administration decided to withdraw troops from Afghanistan and
end the 20-year US military presence there. Please analyze the background of
the US troop withdrawal from Afghanistan and the development of the power
balance in this region between the U.S., China, and Russia from the “balance
of power” theory. (20 points)
二、In order to resolve the South China Sea dispute, China and the ten ASEAN
countries signed the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China
Sea (DOC) in 2002. This June (2021), the foreign ministers of China and the
ASEAN countries held a special meeting in Chongqing to discuss how to
implement this declaration to properly handle the South China Sea dispute.
Please explore the changes in China’s perceptions of national interests and
choices in the process of participating in the negotiation of this declaration from
the perspective of neo-realism and neo-liberal institutionalism, and analyze
them from the viewpoints of “relative gains” and “absolute gains.” (20 points)
三、The rivalry and confrontation between the United States and China are
becoming increasingly heated. Some people believe that the current situation
is quite similar to the pre-World War I period, and are therefore concerned
about the possibility of the next great war. Please answer the following
questions: (1) What were the causes of the First World War? Using your
knowledge of modern diplomatic history, please cite at least three factors to
explain them. (15 points) (2) What are the substantive issues that cause serious
friction and confrontation between the U.S. and China? What are the potential
flash points that may trigger a conflict between the two powers? Is there any
similarity between the current situation and the situation before the First World
War? Is it likely that the rivalry between the two powers results in another
major war? Please try to use the ideas or theories of international relations to
discuss the questions. (20 points)
代號:11030
頁次:4-2
乙、測驗題部分:(25 分) 代號:3110
本測驗試題為單一選擇題,請選出一個正確或最適當的答案,複選作答者,該題不予計分。
共20題,每題1.25分,須用2B鉛筆在試卡上依題號清楚劃記,於本試題或申論試卷上作答者,不予計分。
1 In the book Destined for War, Graham Allison argues that China and the United States are heading toward
a war that neither of them wants. Which of the following is the most relevant to analyze this phenomenon?
 Mutual Assured Destruction.  Thucydides’s Trap.
 Kindleberger Trap.  Balance of Terror.
2 Which of the following is the “mercantilist” view of International Political Economy?
 Free trade is the best means of enhancing economic security.
 The global economy is an arena of capitalist competition.
 The world economy is where states seek to maximize their wealth and national security.
 Signing a regional economic cooperation agreement with other states.
3 Which of the following dose NOT correctly explain “global governance”?
 It refers to a global government, trying to settle the confrontation among states.
 It refers to a problem-solving approach, trying to pursue sustainable development.
 The actors of global governance include nation states, international and regional organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and multinational corporations.
 Good governance is the objective of global governance.
4 During the Covid-19 pandemic, countries around the world immediately closed their borders, imposed
export bans on vaccines and pharmaceutical equipment, and the U.S. and China competed on vaccine
diplomacy. Which of the following best explains the phenomena above?
 Realism.  Liberalism.  Globalism.  Protectionism.
5 China keeps challenging the global power status of the United States. Which of the following level of
analysis does the preceding statement pertain to?
 Individual level.  Organizational level.
 State level.  System level.
6 The Five Eyes Alliance (FVEY) is often mentioned in international affairs. Which of the following is
NOT a member of the Five Eyes Alliance?
 The United States.  The United Kingdom.
 South Africa.  New Zealand.
7 When did the International Arbitration Court rule on the sovereignty disputes between China and the
Philippines over the Scarborough Reef?
 in 2013.  in 2015.  in 2016.  in 2017.
8 After the government heads of the United States and Japan held a summit on April 18, 2021, they made
the U.S.-Japan Summit Joint Statement. Which of the following issue was mentioned in this joint
statement?
 Review of the United States’ One-China Policy.
 Emphasis on joint military exercises among the U.S., Japan and Taiwan.
 Emphasis on the importance of peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait.
 Promoting the Japanese version of the Taiwan Relations Act.
9 Which of the following is now a member of both the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
(RCEP) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)?
 India.  Australia.  China.  Thailand.
10 Which of the following is NOT a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS)?
 China.  Japan.  The United States.  The United Kingdom.
代號:11030
頁次:4-3
11 Several conflicts had happened between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War era,
please arrange the following conflicts in time order:①The Korean War ②The Cuban Missile Crisis
③The Suez Canal Crisis ④The Berlin Blockade.
④①③② ④②③① ③④②① ③①④②
12 After the end of the First World War, the movement of decolonization had been actively developing in the
1920s, the “abolition of unequal treaties” movement had also been unfolded in China. Which of the
following is incorrect?
 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen announced the declaration of the first Kuomingtang National Assembly in Guangzhou
in 1924, calling for abolishing the unequal treaties.
 In May 1925, lots of Chinese students went on a demonstration because some Chinese workers were
shot by a Japanese factory owner over the industrial disputes. The British police caused injuries and
deaths in the Shanghai Settlement on May 3rd. The incident is known as “May 3rd Massacre,” resulting
in the demand of abolishing unequal treaties.
 While the disputes between foreign factory owners and Chinese labors deteriorated in 1925, the
Guangzhou Revolutionary Government mobilized a series of strikes, which lasted for 16 months.
Consequently, Hong Kong economy was in depression and hit the British business activity heavily.
 After the National Revolutionary Army began its Northern Expedition in January 1927 and conquered
Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces, the Nationalist Government retrieved the British Settlement in
Hankou and Jiujiang, and the anti-imperialism movement reached its climax.
13 The U.S. was once eager to mediate the conflict between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist
Party during the 1940s. Which of the following statement is correct?
 After the Pearl Harbor incident, the U.S. sent Joseph W. Stilwell as special envoy to mediate the
conflict between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party.
 After World War II, the U.S. sent George C. Marshall as special envoy for mediating the conflict
between Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party. Consequently, the Chongqing meeting
was held and attended by Marshall, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong.
 Given that both the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party failed to adhere to the armistice
agreement, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt imposed arms embargo on China, and thus changed
the situation of China’s civil war.
 In August 1949, the US State Department issued the China White Paper. It attributed the causes and
the deteriorating situation in China to the government of the Republic of China.
14 After World War II, which treaty was signed by Japan to renounce all rights and claims on Taiwan and the
Pescadores?
 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan.
 Treaty of Peace with Japan.
 Potsdam Declaration.
 Treaty of Peace between the Republic of China and Japan.
15 Regarding the process of German unification prior to 1871, which of the following statement is incorrect?
 The Customs Union led by Prussia helped to pave the way to national unification.
 Prussia, excluding Austria’s involvement, provoked the war against Denmark over sovereignty dispute
of Schleswig and Holstein in 1864.
 Prussia adopted a lenient policy toward Austria after their war so as to reduce hatred and resistance
from Austria.
 Napoleon III forced Prussia not to intervene into the succession of Spanish throne, resulting in their
worsening relationship and consequently into war.
代號:11030
頁次:4-4
16 China’s Northeast region had been reckoned as one of Far East’s gunpowder kegs in the early 20th century,
which of the following statement is incorrect?
 Japan established the Director Government of Guandong State in Liaoyang as the political and military
ruling authority.
 Japan and Russia reached a secret treaty in 1907, dividing Manchuria into the southern and northern
parts. The southern Manchuria and Korea was under Japan’s sphere of influence, and the northern
Manchuria and Outer Mongolia was under Russia’s sphere of influence.
 Japan presented the Twenty-One Demands to Yuan Shikai in 1915, demanding special rights to
Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.
 After Yuan Shikai’s death, Japan actively supported and cultivated warlord Duan Qirui for controlling
Manchuria behind the scene.
17 Facing the threat of western powers, the Qing government tried to carry out on major political reforms to
strengthen China’s national power. Which of the following statement is incorrect?
 The Self-Strengthening Movement was mainly for the purpose of enhancing China’s national power.
 The defeat of China by the Anglo-French allied forces in 1860 proved the failure of the SelfStrengthening Movement.
 The defeat of China in the first Sino-Japanese War prompted Emperor Guangxu to undertake major
reforms.
 The projects of the WuXu Reform included establishing a naval academy, agricultural schools,
and business schools.
18 The Washington Naval Conference was held in November 1921 chiefly by the U.S. and U.K. What was
the main purpose of the conference?
 The Versailles Treaty had not been ratified by the US Congress, the U.S. hoped to solve the problem
relating to Japan’s special rights in Shandong.
 In response to the success of the Russian Revolution, the U.K. intended to strengthen the AngloJapanese Alliance through the conference in order to keep fighting with Russia.
 In order to counter the rising Soviet Union, the U.S. and U.K. encouraged Japan to build a powerful
navy and to enlarge the size of Japanese fleet.
 The Washington Naval Conference concluded with the signing of the Nine-Power Treaty, which
guaranteed the integrity of China’s territorial sovereignty and ensured Japan’s special rights in China.
19 Among the treaties that the Qing government signed with foreign powers, which one made China lose the
biggest territory ever?
 Treaty of Nerchinsk.  Treaty of Aigun.
 Treaty of Beijing.  Treaty of Nanjing
20 Which of the following statement is correct regarding America’s Open Door Policy in 1899?
 The Great Britain hoped China be partitioned, thus not supporting America’s Open Door Policy.
 The advocacy of Open Door Policy reflected America’s expansionist intention.
 The US Secretary of State James Monroe sent ultimatums in 1898, requesting great powers to ensure
equal business opportunities for all countries in China.
 The U.S. used armed forces several times in defending the Open Door Policy in China.