國立彰化師範大學107學年度碩士班招生考試試題 翻譯

I. Please translate the following passages into Chinese. (50%)

  1. Occupational licensing—the practice of regulating who can do what jobs—has been on the rise for
    decades. In 1950 one in 20 employed Americans required a licence to work. By 2017 that had risen to
    more than one in five. The trend partly reflects an economic shift towards service industries, in which
    licences are more common. But it has also been driven by a growing number of professions
    successfully lobbying state governments to make it harder to enter their industries. Most studies find
    that licensing requirements raise wages in a profession by around 10%, probably by making it harder
    for competitors to set up shop. Lobbyists justify licences by claiming consumers need protection from
    unqualified providers. In many cases this is obviously a charade. Forty-one states license makeup
    artists, as if wielding concealer requires government oversight. Thirteen license bartending. Such
    examples are popular among critics of licensing, because the threat from unlicensed staff in low-skilled
    jobs seems paltry (extracted from The Economist). (25%)
  2. Among the numerous harebrained ideas in President Trump’s budget proposal this week, one stands
    out as especially pernicious: a scheme that would slash an essential antipoverty program and put fresh
    food further out of reach for 46 million low-income people, or one in seven Americans.
    The Trump administration wants to cut the budget of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
    (補充營養協助計畫), popularly known as food stamps, by nearly 30 percent over a decade. It plans
    to accomplish this, in large part, by giving low-income families boxes of pasta, cereal and other
    nonperishable foods, rather than giving them the full amount of their benefit on electronic cards, as
    the SNAP program works today. Those cards can be used at about 260,000 retail stores and farmers’
    markets nationwide to buy a wide range of fresh and packaged food, allowing recipients to shop with
    their families’ preferences and dietary needs in mind (extracted from The New York Times). (25%)
    II. Please translate the following passages into English. (50%)
  3. 為什麼我們在看物體時,眼球會不斷的移動呢?為了瞭解眼球運動的本質,首先得先了解眼
    睛的內部構造。人眼球內部水晶體正後方的視網膜上一點,我們稱之為「中央小窩」(fovea)
    ,是視網膜上視覺敏銳度最高的區域,我們在看物體時總是不斷地轉動眼睛,目的就是要將
    外界的物體影像投射至中央小窩。集中注意力注視它。因此,追蹤一個人的眼球運動軌跡,
    就可以了解一個人注意力的移動軌跡。(擷自《經濟部人才快訊》2017 年 11 月)(25%)
  4. 將冷凍食物放置在安全容器,如瓷碗裡,再蓋上瓷盤後用微波解凍,這比傳統利用水流、泡
    水或室溫解凍快上好幾十倍時間;冷藏食物的加熱速度,一樣比電鍋蒸、煮鍋煮或炒鍋回溫
    快上好幾倍,但可用中火慢慢加熱,一方面減少水分快速流失,一方面也避免因高溫而使食
    物變性。(擷自《親子天下》2017 年 10 月)(25%)